Tourism in the Sustained Hegemonic Neoliberal Order

Dominic Lapointe, Bruno Sarrasin, Cassiopée Benjamin


Sustainable Development (SD) has become a unifying concept that transcends conflicting discourses. Over time it has become a fundamental political concept in the current world order. This paper explores the structures that (re)produce the world-system in which tourism is embedded. Following Fletcher’s (2011) demonstration of tourism as a force of capitalist expansion, we will refer to the concept of the International Political Economy (IPE) to discuss how the world-system has been structured and institutionalized. It appears fundamental to understand this path to face the actual IPE construct in which we see tourism grow year after year in scale and scope. The shift towards neoliberalism as a main narrative has been vastly discussed (Harvey, 2007; Brown, 2015; Mosedale, 2016) but we will turn to the Hardt and Negri’s Theory of Empire (2000). We will first consider the question of how sustainable development, within its virtuous global reach, is in fact, a primarily Empire-like discourse, especially when it is carried by International deterritorialized institutions. The second question we will address is the role of tourism in the moments of Empire processes of transformation and globalisation. We conclude that tourism is contributing to the main process of globalization and the market dominance of neo-liberalism expressed in Empire. If there is different strand of thought and research that advocates tourism and sustainable development as a locus of change in the economic and world system, it has only had limited success at the margins, while discourses of globalization and mass tourism keep going strong.


Tourism industry, International political economy, Empire, Biopower.

Texto completo:

PDF (English)


Agnew, J. & Corbridge, S. (1995). Mastering Space. Hegemony, Territory and International Political Economy, London & New York, UK, NY: Routledge.

Ateljevic, I. (Eds) The critical turn in tourism studies: Innovative research methodologies, (pp.165-193). Abingdon-on-Thames, UK : Routledge.

Balakrishnan, G., & Aronowitz, S. (Eds.). (2003). Debating empire. Brooklyn, NY: Verso. Baldwin, D. A. (Eds.). (1993). Neorealism and Neoliberalism: The Contemporary Debate. New York, NY: Columbia University Press.

Barrett, G. W., & Farina, A. (2000). Integrating ecology and economics. BioScience, 50 (4), 311-312.

Barrett, G. W., & Odum, E. R. (2000). The twenty-first century: The world at carrying capacity. BioScience, 50 (4), 363-368.

Beaud, M. & Dostaler G. (1993). La pensée économique depuis Keynes : Historique et dictionnaire des principaux auteurs [Economic thought since Keynes]. Paris, France : Éditions du Seuil.

Béjot, J-P. (1987, october), Afrique Tourisme, Marchés tropicaux. 2654-2716.

Bermeo, N. (1990). Review: Rethinking Regime Change. Comparative Politics, 22 (3), 359-377.

Brown, W. (2015). Undoing the demos. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Bunkley, G. (1992). The Greening of the Red: Sustainability, Socialism, and the Environmental Crisis. Melbourne, Australia: Pluto Press Australia.

Cater, E. (2006). Ecotourism as a western construct. Journal of Ecotourism, 5(1-2), 23-39.

Coulthard, G. S. (2014). Red skin, white masks: Rejecting the colonial politics of recognition. Mineapolis, MN: University of Minnesota Press.

Cox, Robert W. (1994). The forum: Hegemony and social change. Mershon International Studies Review, 38 (2), 366-367.

Cox, Robert W. (1995). International political economy: Understanding global disorder. Black Point, NS: Fernwood Pub.

Dann, G. M. (1996). The language of tourism: a sociolinguistic perspective. Cab International.

Deleuze, G., & Guattari, F. (1980). Mille plateaux: Capitalisme et schizophrénie II [Thousands plateaux: Capitalism and schizophrenia]. Paris, France: Minuit.

Dieke, P. (1995). Tourism and Structural Adjustment Programmes in the African Economy, Tourism Economics, 1 (1) 71-93.

Dieke, P. (2000). The Political Economy of Tourism Development in Africa, London, UK : CABI.

Dredge, D. & Gyimóthy S. (2015). The collaborative economy and tourism: Critical perspectives, questionable claims and silenced voices. Tourism Recreation Research, 40 (3), 286-302.

Dunkley, G. (1992). The Greening of the Red: Sustainability, Socialism, and the Environmental Crisis. Melbourne, Australia: Pluto Press Australia.

Fletcher, R. (2011). Sustaining Tourism, Sustaining Capitalism? The Tourism Industry's Role in Global Capitalist Expansion, Tourism Geographies, 13 (3), 443-461.

Fontanel, J. (1981). Organisations économiques internationales [International economic organisation]. Paris : Masson.

Fontanel, J. (2005). La globalisation en analyse : géoéconomie et stratégie des acteurs [Analysis of globalization: geo economy and stakeholders strategy]. Paris : L’Harmattan.

Foucault, M. Naissance de la biopolitique 9. (1979). Retrieved from

Gilder, G. (1981). Wealth and Poverty. New York, NY: Basix Books.

Gilder, G. (2012). Wealth and Poverty: A new Edition for the twenty-first Century. Washington, DC: Regnery Publishing.

Gill, S. (1991). Reflections on global order and sociohistorical time. Alternatives, 16, (3), 275–314.

Gill, S. and Law D. (1988). The global political economy: Perspectives, problems and policies. London, UK: Harvester and Wheatsheaf.

Gilpin, R. (2001). Global Political Economy: Understanding the International Economic Order. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.

Gilpin, R. (2016). The Political Economy of International Relations. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.

Guitián, M. (1981). Conditionnalité du Fonds et processus d’ajustement international: l’environnement mouvant des années 1970 [funds conditionality and international adjustment process: moving environment of the 1970]. Finances & développement, 8 (11), 8-12.

Hardt, M., & Negri, A. (2000). Empire. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Harvey, D. (2007). A Brief History of Neoliberalism. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.

Haughton, G., Gilchrist, A., & Swyngedouw, E. (2016). ‘Rise like lions after slumber’: Dissent, protest and (post-) politics in Manchester. Territory, Politics, Governance, 4(4), 472-491.

Higgins-Desbiolles, F. (2011). Resisting the hegemony of the market: Reclaiming the social capacities of tourism. In S. McCabe, L. Minnaert and A. Diekmann (Eds) Social Tourism in Europe: Theory and Practice (pp.53-68). Bristol, UK: Channel View Publications.

Hollinshead, K. (2007). Worldmaking’and the transformation of place and culture: The enlargement of Meethan’s analysis of tourism and global change.

Hollinshead, K., Ateljevic, I., & Ali, N. (2009). Worldmaking agency–worldmaking authority: The sovereign constitutive role of tourism. Tourism Geographies, 11(4), 427-443.

International Monetary Funds (1987, September), Theoritical Aspects of the Design of Fund- Supported Adjustment Programs, Washington DC: IMF.

International Monetary Funds (1989, August), Staff Studies for the World Economic Outlook, Washington DC: IMF.

Jacob, M. (1999). Sustainable Development as a Contested Concept. In, A. Dobson (ed.), Fairness and Futurity (pp.21-45). Oxford, UK : Oxford University Press.

Jenkins, I., & Schröder, R. (Eds.). (2013). Sustainability in tourism: A multidisciplinary approach. Berlin: Springer Science & Business Media.

Judd, D. R., & Fainstein, S. S. (1999). Cities as places to play. In Judd, D. R., & Fainstein, S. S (Eds.), The tourist city (pp.261-272). New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.

Keohane, R. O. (1982). The demand for international regimes. International Organization, 36, (2), 325-355.

Keohane, R. O. (2002). Power and Governance in a Partially Globalized World. London and New York, UK, NY: Routledge.

Keohane, R. O. (2005). After Hegemony. Cooperation and Discord in the World Political Economy. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.

Keohane, R.O. (1980). The theory of Hegemonic Stability and Change in International Economic Regimes, 1967-1977, Washigton D.C: Center for International Relations.

Keohane, Robert O. (2012). Twenty Years on Institutional Liberalism. International Relations, 26, (2), 125-138.

Keucheyan, R. (2013). Left Hemisphere: Mapping Contemporary Theory. Brooklyn, NY: Verso Books.

Killick, T. & Sutton M. (1982). Desequilibria, Financing, and Adjustment in Developing Countries, In Adjustment and Financing in the Developing World : The Role of the International Monetary Fund, Tony Killick (ed.), Washington, D.C. : IMF.

Madrid : UNWTO, retreived from .

Morton, A. D. (2003). Social Forces in the Struggle over Hegemony: Neo-Gramscian Perspectives in International Political Economy. Rethinking Marxism, 15, (2), 153-179.

Morucci, B. (1991, october). Analyse comparative de politiques touristiques dans les pays industrialisés et dans les pays en voie de développement. Téoros, collection colloques et congrès, 1, (1), 3-12.

Mosedale, J. T. (Ed.) (2016). Neoliberalism and the Political Economy of Tourism. Abingdon, UK & NY: Routledge.

Naveh, Z. (2000). The total human ecosystem: integrating ecology and economics. BioScience, 50(4), 357-361.

Naveh, Z., & Lieberman, A. S. (1994). Landscape ecology: theory and application. Berlin: Springer Science & Business Media.

Nelson, J. M. (1990). Economic Crisis and Policy Choice : The Politics of Adjustment in The Third World. Princeton, NJ : Princeton University Press.

OCDE (1987). Ajustement structurel et performances de l'économie [Structural adjustments and economic performance]. Paris : OCDE.

Pine, B. J., & Gilmore, J. H. (1999). The experience economy: work is theatre & every business a stage. Brighton, Massachusetts: MA Harvard Business Press.

Ruggie, J. G. (1982). International regimes, transactions, and change: embedded liberalism in the postwar economic order, International Organization, 36, (2), 379-415.

Ruggie, J. G. (2002), Constructing the World Polity: Essays on international institutionalization, London and New York: UK, NY: Routledge.

Ruggie, J.G. (2008), Embedding Global Markets: An Enduring Challenge, Burlington and Hampshire, UK: Ashgate.

Saarinen, J. (2006). Traditions of sustainability in tourism studies. Annals of tourism research, 33(4), 1121-1140.

Sachs, W. (1999). Sustainable development and the crisis of nature: On the political anatomy of an oxymoron. Living with nature, 23(1), 23-42.

Sarrasin, B. (2007). Le plan d’action environnemental malgache. De la genèse aux problèmes de mise en œuvre : une analyse sociopolitique de l’environnement [Malgache environmental action plan. From genesis to implementation: a sociopolitical analysis of environment]. Revue Tiers-Monde, 2 (190), 435-454.

Sarrasin, B. (2013). Environnement et développement à Madagascar. Du plan d'action environnemental à la mise en valeur touristique des ressources naturelles [Environment and development in Madagascar. From the environmental action plan to the touristic valorisation of natural ressources], Paris : Karthala.

Schilcher, D. (2007). Growth versus equity: The continuum of pro-poor tourism and neoliberal governance. Current Issues in Tourism, 10(2-3), 166-193.

Sharpley, R. (2000). Tourism and sustainable development: Exploring the theoretical divide. Journal of Sustainable tourism, 8(1), 1-19.

Sid Ahmed, A. (1987, april, june). Industrie touristique et développement: quelques enseignements [Tourist industry and development: what we learn]. Revue Tiers Monde, t. XXVIII, 110, 395-406.

Todaro, Michael P. (1989). Economic development in the Third World. New York, NY: Longman.

UNWTO. (2012). Rapport de la Commission de l’OMT pour l’Europe [OMT report for europe].

Van Lennep, Emile (1984, may). Interdépendance Nord-Sud et réformes économiques [North and south interdependence and economic reforms] . L'Observateur de l'OCDE, 128, 3-6.

Viken, A., & Müller, D. K. (Eds.). (2017). Tourism and indigeneity in the Arctic. Bristol, UK: Channel View Publications.

Weiss, T. G. (2015). The United Nations: before, during and after 1945. International Affairs, 91(6), 1221-1235.

Young, O. R. (1982). Regime dynamics: the rise and fall of international regimes. International Organization, 36, (2), 1982-27.

Young, O. R. (1991). Political leadership and regime formation: on the development of institutions in international society, International Organization, 45, (3), 281-308.

Young, O. R. (1999). Governance in World Affairs. Ithaca and London, NY, UK: Cornell University Press.


  • Não há apontamentos.

Direitos autorais 2018 Revista Latino-Americana de Turismologia

Indexadores da RLAT: 












Bibliothek Universitats Leipzig
Bibliothek Universitat Vechta
Hochschule Hannover University of Applied Sciences and Arts
Leuphana Universitat Luneburg
Library of Anglo-American Culture & History
Biblioteca Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México
Biblioteca da Faculdades Integradas de Ribeirão Pires
Centro de Excelência Latino Americano em Turismologia - CELAT
Departamento de Turismo/DepTur, Instituto de Ciências Humanas/ICH, Sala A-II-08, bloco A.
Universidade Federal de Juiz de Fora (UFJF)
R. José Lourenço Kelmer, Campus Universitário, São Pedro. Juiz de Fora, Minas Gerais (MG) / Brasil. CEP.: 36036-330.
ISSN 2448-198X

Desenvolvido por:

Logomarca da Lepidus Tecnologia